Ozone has the shortest life of all the substances that act as significant greenhouse gases. Its lifetime in the troposphere is just weeks or months. Ozone acts as a greenhouse gas in the lower troposphere, and the concentration has increased in recent decades, which resulted in ozone being rated the third most significant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane by IPCC.
Particles play an increasing, not yet fully understood role in the climate system. Different types of particles can influence climate, either as magnifiers of as suppressors of the global warming effect. "White" particles (e.g. sulphate particles originating from emissions of sulphur dioxide) with high capacity to reflect sunlight mainly act as a cooling agent, while soot and other "black" particles have great capacity to absorb sunlight. In addition, particles are significant in the formation and duration of clouds, as well as their ability to reflect sunlight. The complexity of the optical properties, and the uneven distribution of particles in the atmosphere, makes estimates of the role if particles in the climate system highly uncertain.
To a substantial extent, air pollutants and greenhouse gases are emitted from the same sources. As such, a well designed climate change mitigation strategy can have co-benefirs i terms of improved air quality. Similarly, an optimal strategy to decrease air pollution is likely to help combat the climate change.
Sources: Air and the environment by P.Elvingson and C.Ågren,
Air Pollution and Climate Change - Two sides of the same coin by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Authors, 2009
Guidance on GAINS application (pdf, 2.4 MB) model in the state environmental management system of the Russian Federation (Russian; English version is under development)
Guidance document on Critical Load assessments (in Russian) (pdf, 790.3 kB)